Table of Contents » Chapter 10: Environmental Impacts » Chapter 10 : Raw Materials

Chapter 10 : Raw Materials


One of the biggest impacts that ceramics has on the environment of the planet is from mining operations. Ceramic materials are obtained mostly from surface mining which is the most detrimental type of extraction because it drastically alters the landscape. Mining strips nonrenewable resources from the earth resulting in some negative effects which can include;

  • Biodiversity loss
  • Soil erosion
  • Contamination of surface water
  • Formation of sinkholes
polluted water discharge flow and levels of treatment of polluted discharge at 43 sites – from Associated Press

Surface mining can destroy the ecological balance of an area which results in negative impacts on native species. Despite efforts, many times an area can not be restored to its former state after extraction has commenced. The materials displaced during the process are called spoil piles. These have perhaps the most immediate effect on the surrounding areas. Minerals not previously available to erosion processes can travel into local water supplies, contaminating it chemically, and suffocating local flora and fauna which live in the water. A 2019 study from the Associated Press found that 50 million gallons of contaminated water pour daily from mine sites in the U.S.

An Alternative to using clay from industrial mining sites is to locally harvest clay. While this still alters the landscape, small and local operations are a good alternative to buying materials that are mined by industry. Through the removal of topsoil, sediment is exposed. Piling the soil over untitled land will inevitably disturb the soil nutrient cycle. Heavy rainfall can then wash the sediment into nearby bodies of water which can smother organisms living in the water and make it unsuitable for drinking for larger fauna.

Check out this article on digging and processing your own clay.

Another aspect of the environmental impact of mining is processing and transportation. Clay, feldspar, fillers, and fluxes come from all over the world. With these transports come whole sets of pollutants from each.

-transport options from


While most materials that we use go through the extensive processing of mining, frits are a whole other can of worms. Ceramicists use frits for their reliability, melting properties, and convenience. These highly precise materials are manufactured by an intense melting and cooling process which homogenizes the mix of chemicals. The most commonly used frit company for studio ceramicists is Ferro, which is a U.S. based company with 72 locations worldwide.

“In our case, the main environmental aspect associated with the production of ceramic frits is that it is an energy-intensive, high-temperature process. This entails emissions of combustion products and the oxidation of atmospheric nitrogen due to the high temperature.” – ( -World Congress on Ceramic Tile Quality). Oxidation of nitrogen creates nitrous oxide (also known as laughing gas) which is 300 times stronger than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas. It has a lifespan of 110 years and depletes the ozone

EPA research on frit manufacture and emissions 

Up-Cylce Reclaim Clay and Glaze from Deb Schwartzkopf – Watch this video about reclaiming clay and glaze to create pavers or stepping stones.